Module 2: Assignment – Essay Prepare a 2 pages essay explaining how government c

Module 2: Assignment – Essay
Prepare a 2 pages essay explaining how government clinical databases can help researchers study different diseases.
Module 2: Lecture Content
Module 2: An Introduction of Population Health
Population Health
Population health is defined as the health outcomes of a group of individuals (Kindig and Stoddard, 2003). This entails the population’s health per geographic area like communities, counties, states, and nations. For that purpose, population health includes what is called the social determinants of health of a population.
Social Determinants of Health
Social determinants of health are referred to a variety of non-clinical factors and systems that can influence the conditions of daily life and contribute to health outcomes (Zeni, 2021).
These non-clinical factors have a direct impact on the health of a community. Some examples of social determinants of health are:
Education
Water
Availability of medical services
Clean Air
Employment
Education
All these determinants of health play an important role in the population’s health. Measures of health outcomes in epidemiology included mortality and morbidity rate. One of the best examples of the health of a population is the infant mortality rate.
The infant mortality rate measures the number of death in a specific year of children younger than one year (Kindig and Stoddard, 2003). The equation to calculate the infant mortality rate is the following:
Infant Mortality Rate = Number of deaths among infants (0-1) during a given time period X 1,000
Number of live births in the same period
The information to acquire the data for IMR is collected from birth and death certificates, revealing the importance of acquiring reliable data to collect this information. CDC, 2018)
Other examples of measures of health outcomes in epidemiology are the following:
Life Expectancy tells us the average number of years of life a person who has attained a given age can expect to live (CDC, 2022). In the United States, Life Tables are used to estimate life expectancy.
Birth Rate is the ratio of total live births to total population in a given area over a specified time.
Birth Rate = Number of live births during a specified time period X 1,000
Population from which the births occurred
The fertility rate represents the number of live births per 1000 females of childbearing age (15-49).
Fertility Rate = Number of live births during a specified time period X 1,000
The population of women 15-49
Mortality Rate is the incidence of death during a defined period, often expressed as a rate per 100,000.
Crude Mortality Rate = Number of deaths during a given time period X 100,000
Population from which the deaths occurred
Cause-Specific Mortality Rate = Number of deaths from a specific cause during a given time period X 100,000
Population from which the deaths arise
Maternal mortality is the death of women while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy and is a good indicator of overall population health.
Maternal Mortality Rate =
Number of deaths due to the pregnancy state or its management during a specified time period X 100,000
Number of live births in the same period
Neonatal Mortality Rate
Number of deaths from birth through 27 days of life in a specified time period. X 1,000
Number of live births in the same period
The fetal Death rate is the ratio of fetal deaths divided by the sum of the births in that year and is a good measure of healthcare quality in a country (Merrill, 2021).
Fetal Death Rate = Number of fetal deaths after 20 weeks of gestation X 1,000
Number of stillbirths + live births
Population Base Databases
The population database is defined as data accessible from the government health agencies to conduct studies. This data is free or accessible for a small nominal charge. The data is available for large studies to be analyzed. This public health information has been collected utilizing a rigorous methodology and data, a strict collection process to guarantee that the results of the study conducted with this data can be generalized to the population of interest (Zeni, 2021).
Adult Obesity
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC defines obesity utilizing the body mass index (BMI). The BMI is classified into three classes:
Class 1: BMI of 30 to < 35 Class 2: BMI of 35 to < 40 Class 3: BMI of 40 or higher Class 3 obesity is known as "extreme obesity" (CDC, 2018). BMI is a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters (CDC, 2018). The BMI is also considered a screening tool to identify overweight, underweight, or obese people. BMI is a screening tool, not a diagnostic tool, and provides a general population-based measurement to identify and study obesity (Zeni, 2021).